Research Summary on Effectiveness of Non-Drug Coping Techniques

There have been several literature reviews of available research on the available non-pharmacological techniques for coping with labor pain. Each of these reviews acknowledges the limitations of the research that they compile: primarily the studies are small sample sizes, and are not properly randomized control trials. (Women are typically allowed to choose which coping techniques to use with their labor.) So, all conclusions come with the caveat that “more research is needed.”

This chart summarizes those reviews. (Note: the birth ball results are based on a single study rather than a review.) Pain coping techniques are compared to “usual care.”

The chart compares the following factors that might be desired outcomes coping measures: less pain intensity, less likelihood that the laboring mother will turn to pain medications (unless that was her goal), higher satisfaction with pain relief, shorter labor, higher chance of spontaneous vaginal delivery (vs. instrumental delivery or cesarean), and less use of Pitocin to augment a slow labor.

Source Less pain? Less pain meds? More satisfaction Shorter labor Spontan. vaginal Less pitocin
Acupressure yes *
Acupuncture yes yes
Acupuncture yes yes * yes * yes *
Aromatherapy NSD
Aromatherapy NSD NSD NSD NSD
Birth Ball yes * NSD
Continuous Support yes yes yes yes yes
Epidural & Pain Meds yes N/A yes no no no
Hypnosis yes * NSD NSD yes * NSD
Hypnosis yes yes yes yes
Immersion in Water yes NSD
Massage yes
Music / audio NSD NSD NSD
Positions & Movement yes yes yes
Relaxation yes yes yes
Sterile Water Inj. yes NSD
Sterile Water Inj. yes yes
TENS yes * NSD
Yoga yes yes yes

* means limited data; NSD means there may have been a difference, but it wasn’t statistically significant

(Note: In a 2014 review by Chaillet, et al, these techniques were pooled into 3 categories, which helped to increase the statistical significance of the findings. Learn more. Also check out more articles about coping with labor pain.)

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